job analysis methods advantages and disadvantages A job is a collection of aggregation of task, duties, and responsibilities which as a whole are regarded as a regular assignment to individual employment it means an individual employee is given a regular assignment of duties and responsibilities. We can explain the job as when the total work that is to be done is divided into groups and into packages we call it a job. There are some more terms related to the job that are task, duties, position. The task means a distinct work activity carried out by a distinct person. The term duty means the number of the task performed by a person. Position means the number of duties performed by a person. An employee may be given one position. The job can be defined as a group of positions.
Job analysis can be defined as a procedure to determine the duties and the nature of jobs and the kinds of people who should be hired to perform these jobs. Job analysis can provide data on job requirement which is to be used for developing job descriptions means what the job is and what kind of peoples are required for the job.
According to Flipp “Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information related to the operation and responsibilities of a specific job”.
Thus job analysis involved the process of identifying the nature of the job and the qualities of the likely job holder.
Why job analysis is important?
If the job designed well and done right it will help in the achievement of organizational goal. If the job is not designed well it will affect efficiency and will decrease profitability.
It will increase operational efficiency by deciding hierarchical position and functional differentiation means to decide where the job lies and to whom the employee must report.
It is useful in planning manpower and determining their duties and responsibilities.
The organization can select and recruit relevant employees. Because after job analysis organization is able to determine job demands and what sort of people are required to fulfill those demands. So job analysis is helpful in recruitment and selection.
Job analysis enables the proper placement of the employees. The organization can orient them accordingly.
Job analysis also helps the management in deciding which type of training and development programs are required. It helps to define the contents and the subject matter of the training course. It also helps in checking application information, interview test results and checking references.
Organizations can decide what of the job means how much it will have to pay to the employee.
Job analysis helps in performance appraisals by comparing actual performance with desired performance. Through job analysis, industrialist engineers and other experts determined standards to be achieved and specific activities to be performed.
Another important factor that is determined by job analysis is identifying health hazard conditions or unhealthy environment factors to take corrective measures which are related to the health and safety of the employees to minimize the possibility of an accident in the organization.
Employees counseling can be done through job analysis by explaining to employees how to cope with hazards involved in the given job or they can be advised to opt for subsidiary jobs. Employees can be advised to seek premature retirement from the job.
How to analyze a job?
There are some steps involved in job analysis
First, determine the use of the data which results from job analysis. This will leads you to decide which type of data you want to collect and the techniques you will use to collect that information.
The next step is to connect background information such as organizational charts which shows how the job relates to another job and where they fit into the overall organization. This means determining the hierarchical position of the job and describe the general requirements of the class of job to which the job under analysis belongs to. The next background organizational information required to be collected is to determine the existing job description which provides a starting point from which to build the reversed job description.
Select the job for analysis main to decide either the job analysis is required for a particular job or not. Because to do job analysis is a costly and time-consuming process. So first it is necessary to decide that either the analysis is required or not. Priorities among various job should also be determined. We can also select a job for analysis because of the request for the analysis originated by the employee-supervisor or by the manager.
Job analysis data should be collected directly from the person performing the job or from the other employees like the format of a supervisor who was the employees. Job analysis data can also be collected from the outside person known as trade job analysis who are appointed to watch the employees’ performance.
Once job information has been collected. It is to be processed and place in a form that makes it useful for various personnel who are using it. Several issues may arise with respect to this first how much detail is needed second can the job information is expressed in quantitative terms. These must be considered properly.
Preparing job classification by showing full details of the activities of the job. Support job description forms may be used for various activities in the job and may be compiled later on.
Final steps involved in job analysis is the development of job specifications. Job specifications are built on the basis of data collected. The specifications refer to the minimum acceptable qualities of a person to be placed on the job. It specifies the standards by which the qualities of a person should be measured for a particular job. Search statement is used in selecting a person for a particular job.
Methods for collecting job analysis data
Workers can keep participants diary, log or list of things they do during the day. This will provide a very comprehensive picture of the job. For every activity that he or she engaged in employee maintain improper log book.
Job analyst can conduct an interview with the individual. He can conduct group interviews of the peoples performing the same job or supervisor interviews of the individuals who are thoroughly supervising the job. The group interview is conducted only when a large number of people are performing the same job. Since this can be a quick and inexpensive way about learning the job. As a rule, the worker immediate supervisor would attend the group session if not you should interview the supervisors separately to get the person’s perspective on the duties and responsibilities of the job.
Collect information about critical incidents. It means collecting information about the incidents that happened in the past and how the individual reacted to that incident.
A questionnaire can be used to get the necessary information from the job holder. The properly drafted questionnaire is sent to the job holder and they are required to complete and return to the supervisor. This idea is used to know the information from the job holder although informational purposes can be incoherent. Show that any error can be discussed with the employees. This is a very time-consuming activity and often do not yield the required results. Many employees do not complete the questionnaire or furnished the correct information because of their own limitations.
One of the methods of collecting job analysis data is also technical conference method. In this method, we utilize supervisors’ extensive knowledge about the job like the expert comments. In this approach, we overlook our worker’s perception of what they really think about their job or what they really do about their job.
The next method for collecting job analysis data is by performing the job by the job analyst. In this method, the job analyst is supposed to go through all the process of the job. Supposed through all the duties and responsibilities being done by the employees. He actually performs the job.
The next method is a functional job analysis. This includes the need for specific instructions to perform the task. What are the specific instructions to be given to the employees? The need of reasoning, judgment and mathematical liabilities, what are the physical abilities. What are the verbal and language activities are required by the employee?
The last method is simply observing the employee. This method is used in those jobs which are manual, standardize or short cycle activities.
After collecting job analysis data there are two outputs the one is a job description and the second is job specification. Add stage you are able to describe a job. Flipp has defined job description as “job description is an organized factual statement of duties and responsibilities of a specific job”.